), whose theories amounted to "capitalism for the proletariat.". Hence the blindness of the professional "scientist-type" historians, who in a grand lack of imagination see only the visible. "metrics": true, Spengler introduces his book as a " Copernican overturning " involving the rejection of the Eurocentric view of history, especially the division of history into the linear " ancient - medieval - modern " rubric. Heretofore history, especially Western history, had been viewed as a "linear" progression from lower to higher, like rungs on a ladder -- an unlimited evolution upward. B) Oswald Spengler. Thus Spengler's greatest breakthrough may perhaps be his postulation of the non-universality of things, the "differentness" or distinctiveness of different people and cultures (despite their fated common end) -- an idea that is beginning to take hold in the modern West, which started this century supremely confident of the wisdom and possibility of making the world over in its image. The German philosopher Oswald Spengler (1880-1936) is famous for his Decline of the West. Spengler, Oswald. Of Hitler he supposed to have said that what Germany needed was a hero, not a heroic tenor. He never did finish this, though Fundamental Questions, in the main a collection of aphorisms on the subject, was published in 1965. With this arrives the "imperialistic" stage of civilization, in which the Caesars with their bands of followers battle each other for control of the earth. He is best known for his book The Decline of the West, published in 1918 and 1922, covering all of world history. Share. It is exemplified, for instance, by Gothic architecture (especially the interiors of Gothic cathedrals, with their vertical lines and seeming "ceilinglessness"). Spengler had tied up most of his money in foreign investments, but the war had largely invalidated them, and he was forced to live out the war years in conditions of genuine poverty. Article shared by. If you should have access and can't see this content please. After his father's death in 1901, Spengler at 21 entered the University of Munich. 2), pp. 3. "comments": true, It offered a rational explanation for the great European disaster, explaining it as part of an inevitable world-historic process. The Saecul… Cyclical theories of social change: Spengler and Toynbee. But the effort came to naught. He met Hitler in person only once, in July 1933, but Spengler came away unimpressed from their lengthy discussion. It predicts a time when the Colored peoples of the earth will use the very technology of the West to destroy the West. Feature Flags: { From The Journal of Historical Review, March-April 1998 (Vol. Man and Technics. 2ff. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1934. New York: Scribner's, 1952 [revised ed., 1962]. The coming of the Caesars (of which Napoleon was only a foreshadowing) was perhaps only decades away. However, he passed a second examination in 1904, and then set to writing the secondary dissertation necessary to qualify as a high school teacher. This became The Development of the Organ of Sight in the Higher Realms of the Animal Kingdom. Spengler, as the title of his work suggests, saw the West as doomed to the same eventual extinction that all the other High Cultures had faced. First, though, a proper understanding requires a recognition of Spengler's special approach to history. Finally, but after it had already achieved a wide circulation, the authorities prohibited the book's further distribution. He is best known for his book The Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes) (footnote 1), published in 1918 and 1922, covering all of world history. "metricsAbstractViews": false, This concept, Spengler insisted, is only a product of Western man's ego -- as if everything in the past pointed to him, existed so that he might exist as a yet-more perfected form. Spengler contended that because most civilizations must pass through a life cycle, not only can the historian reconstruct the past but he can predict “the spiritual forms, duration, rhythm, meaning and product of the still unaccomplished stages of our Western history.” Also, though every culture has its unique Soul and is in essence a special and separate entity, the development of the life cycle is paralleled in all of them: For each phase of the cycle in a given Culture, and for all great events affecting its course, there is a counterpart in the history of every other culture. Feature Flags last update: Fri Jan 01 2021 15:17:19 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Hence the "contemporaneousness" of all high cultures. "lang": "en" Now, amidst all the chaos of the times, there comes a "second religiosity"; a longing return to the old symbols of the faith of the culture. to understand his theory. Interpretation of history as repeating cycles of Dark and Golden Ages was a common belief among ancient cultures. This is basically a tragic symbol, for it reaches for what even the reacher knows is unreachable. He joined the IHR Journal's editorial staff in June 1982, and served as its chief editor from February 1983 until February 1985. Even though it has been virtually forgotten in modern times, its bold predictions for the Western world have withstood the test of time and even been strengthened by its passage. Though separate entities in themselves, all High Cultures experience parallel development, and events and phases in any one find their corresponding events and phases in the others. Essay on Cyclical Theories of Social Change – “Cyclical theories of social change focus on the rise and fall of civilisations attempting to discover and account for these patterns of growth and decay” – (Ian Robertson). … His first post was at a school in Saarbrücken. 2) editions, translated by Charles Francis Atkinson. Spengler's cyclic interpretation of history stated that a civilization was an organism having a definite and fixed life-span and moving from infancy to senescence and death by an internal necessity comparable to the biological necessity that decrees the development of the human organism from infantile imbecility to senile decrepitude. Toynbee and the Cyclical Pattern of History Abstract There has been recently a return on the part of some writers to the Greek theory that the course of history follows a cyclical pattern. The Hour of Decision. Cyclic Theory- Of Oswald Spengler, Arnold Toynbee And Sorokin (in hindi) Lesson 10 of 17 • 9 upvotes • 13:29 mins. 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